[48] Despite Robert's further condemnations of his border lords, all the signs were that Robert backed the growing successful Scottish militancy following Edward III's death in 1377. [10] Robert II—unlike David II whose kingship was predominantly Lothian and therefore lowland based—did not restrict his attention to one sector of his kingdom but frequently visited the more remote areas of the north and west among his Gaelic lords. [67] Similarly, Nicholson described Robert's reign as deficient and that his lack of the skills of governance led to internal strife. [10], King David's captivity[edit] Petitions to the Pope, 1342–1419 [23]. [23] On 17 October 1346, Robert accompanied David into battle at Neville's Cross, where many Scottish nobles including Randolph, died—David II was wounded and captured while Robert and Patrick, earl of March had apparently fled the field.[11]. Robert's peace strategy was a factor in the virtual coup in 1384 when he lost control of the country, first to his eldest son, John, Earl of Carrick, afterwards King Robert III, and then from 1388 to John's younger brother, Robert, Earl of Fife, afterwards the first Duke of Albany. Contents [show] Heir presumptive[edit] Robert Stewart, born in 1316, was the only child of Walter Stewart, High Steward of Scotland and King Robert I's daughter Marjorie Bruce, who died probably in 1317 following a riding accident. "[66] Donaldson goes further and debates the legality of the canon law marriage of Robert and Elizabeth Mure following the papal dispensation, but acknowledges that the Acts of Succession in 1371 and 1372, although sealing the matter in the eyes of Parliament, did not end the generational feud of the descendants of Elizabeth Mure and of Euphemia Ross. [77] Grant gives little weight to the asserted senility of Robert, and suggests that the deposition of Carrick in 1388, and then the resolution to join the Anglo-French truce of 1389, were both at the instigation of Robert II. [62] Fife relieved Buchan of his offices of lieutenant of the north and justiciar north of the Forth. [33] Later French inducements couldn't bring David to their aid and the country remained at peace with England until he unexpectedly died on 21 February 1371. Ex-partner of Mariota Cardney Father of Sir John Stewart, Sheriff of Bute; Maria Stewart; Walter Stewart of Cardney and of Cluny; Alexander Stewart of Innerlunan; James Stewart of Abernethy and Kinfauns and 18 others; Sir John Stewart of Cardney,Kgt. [7] His short reign was bedeviled by Edward I's insistence on his overlordship of Scotland. King of Scotland Robert II Stewart b. Following this battle, Robert's lands in the west were given by Balliol to his supporter David Strathbogie, the titular Earl of Atholl. [2] Edward was killed at the Battle of Faughart, near Dundalk on 14 October 1318,[3] resulting in a hastily arranged Parliament in December to enact a new entail naming Marjorie's son, Robert, as heir should the king die without a successor. [51] John of Gaunt led a reciprocal English attack that took him as far as Edinburgh, where he was bought off by the burgesses, but destroyed Haddington. Mary Stewart (c1383-) 4. [6], The first war of independence began in the reign of King John Balliol. He was heir to the thrown and died under suspicious circumstances, possibly murdered by his uncle, Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany. [50] John of Gaunt led a reciprocal English attack that took him as far as Edinburgh, where he was bought off by the burgesses, but destroyed Haddington. Robert, the Duke, made no serious effort to have James freed. [25], Even though an English prisoner, David retained influence in Scotland and Robert had his Guardianship removed by parliament and given jointly to the earls of Mar and Ross and the lord of Douglas—this did not last and Robert was once again appointed Guardian by the Parliament of February 1352. He was delivered by caesarean section. He was the son of Robert I's daughter Marjorie and her husband Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland. He was the son of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland and of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce and of his first wife Isabella of Mar. It described the patriotic acts of both Sir James, the Black Douglas and Walter the Steward, the king's father, in their support of Bruce. [24] In 1347 he took the important step of ensuring the legitimation of his four sons, John, Earl of Carrick (the future King Robert III), Walter, Lord of Fife (d. 1362), Robert (the future Duke of Albany) and Alexander, Lord of Badenoch (and future Earl of Buchan), and six daughters by petitioning Pope Clement VI to allow a canon law marriage to Elizabeth Mure. Their son became Robert II, the first Stewart king. [8] John Balliol submitted to Edward and resigned the throne to him before being sent to London as a prisoner. Her husband died in 1346 and she remained a … Isabella (died 1410), married James Douglas, 2nd Earl of Douglas (died in 1388), followed in 1389 by David Edmonstone. [57] Robert's differences with the Carrick affinity regarding the conduct of the war and his continued failure or unwillingness to deal with Buchan in the north led to the political convulsion of November 1384 when the Council removed the king's authority to govern and appointed Carrick as lieutenant of the kingdom—a coup d’état had taken place. The Council rejected these terms, with Robert opposed to a proposal that threatened his right of succession. [30] After Edward's victory over France in September, the Scots resumed negotiations for David's release ending in October 1357 with the Treaty of Berwick. After his brother David was murdered, James feared for his own life and fled from Scotland to France, however his ship was intercepted by English pirates and he was sent to London as a prisoner for 18 years. [34] Later French inducements couldn't bring David to their aid and the country remained at peace with England until he unexpectedly died on 21 February 1371. Signification that although Elizabeth Mor and Isabella Boutellier, noble damsels of the diocese of Glasgow, are related in the third and fourth degrees of kindred, Robert Steward of Scotland, lord of Stragrifis, in the diocese of Glasgow, the king's nephew, carnally knew first Isabella, and afterwards, in ignorance of their kindred, Elizabeth, who was herself related to Robert in the fourth degree of kindred, living with her for some time and having many children of both sexes by her; the above king and bishops therefore pray the pope that for the sake of the said offspring, who are fair to behold (aspectibus gratiose), to grant a dispensation to Robert and Elizabeth to intermarry, and to declare their offspring legitimate. [21] At the beginning of June 1341, the kingdom appeared sufficiently stable to allow the king to return to a land where his nobles, while fighting for the Bruce cause, had considerably increased their own power bases. These complaints damaged the king's standing within the Council leading to criticism of his ability to curb Buchan's activities. David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay (1378-1402) 3. Robert, Earl of Fife and from 1398 Duke of Albany (died 1420), married in 1361 Margaret Graham, Countess of Menteith, and his second wife in 1381 Muriella Keith (died in 1449). [35], David was buried at Holyrood Abbey almost immediately but an armed protest by William, Earl of Douglas delayed Robert II's coronation until 26 March 1371. By 1384 the Scots had re-taken most of the occupied lands, but following the commencement of Anglo-French peace talks, Robert was reluctant to commit Scotland to all-out war and obtained Scotland's inclusion in the peace treaty. Robert married Elizabeth Mure around 1348, legitimising his four sons and five daughters. [41] Robert II's rule during the 1370s saw the country's finances stabilised and greatly improved due in part to the flourishing wool trade, reduced calls on the public purse and by the halting of his predecessor's ransom money on the death of Edward III of England. Robert Stewart inherited the title of High Steward of Scotland on his father's death on 9 April 1326, and a Parliament held in July 1326 confirmed the young Steward as heir should Prince David die without a successor. John is a son-in-law to the latter and serves him as a diplomat. He was the son of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland and of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of the Scottish king Robert the Bruce by his first wife Isabella of Mar. Robert II, also remembered as Robert the Steward, was the King of Scots who ruled from 1371 to his death. He grew up in his ancestral lands in the west and was completely at ease with the Gaelic language and culture and possessed a potent relationship with the Gaelic lords in the Hebrides, upper Perthshire and Argyll. [Wiki], Son of: Walter Steward 1293 - 9 Apr 1326 and Marjorie Bruce December 1296 - 2 March 1316 (Daughter of Robert I), Illegitimate children of with Mariota de Cardney, Български, Česky, Dansk, Deutsch, Ελληνικά, English, Español, Suomi, Français, עברית, Magyar, Íslenska, Italiano, 日本語, Nederlands, Norsk (bokmål)‎, Polski, Português, Русский, Svenska, Українська, 中文, http://our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p105.htm#i3151, http://www.britroyals.com/scots.asp?id=robert2, http://www.douglashistory.co.uk/history/kingrobert2nd.htm, http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=9457579, http://www.geneall.net/U/per_page.php?id=9591, http://histfam.familysearch.org/getperson.php?personID=I3115&tree=EuropeRoyalNobleHous, http://histfam.familysearch.org/getperson.php?personID=I6180&tree=Nixon, http://histfam.familysearch.org/getperson.php?personID=I187561&tree=Welsh, http://www.mathematical.com/stuartrobert1316.html, [S6] G.E. During his imprisonment, his uncle Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, became Regent of Scotland and ruled in James' absence. Birth of Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany. He was the grandson of King Robert "The Bruce", but is described as lacking the courage and vigour of his grandfather. [82] The weakening of government if anything, Lynch suggests, came not before the 1384 coup but after it, despite the fact that the coup had at its root Robert II's favouring of his third son, Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan (known as the Wolf of Badenoch). Son of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland and Marjorie Bruce, Princess of Scotland Four or more generations of descendants of Robert II of Scotland (1316-1390) if they are properly linked: 1. Search Now View all images Top record matches for Robert II Stewart King of Scotland Robert's peace strategy was a factor in the virtual coup in 1384 when he lost control of the country, first to his eldest son, John, Earl of Carrick, afterwards King Robert III, and then from 1388 to John's younger brother, Robert, Earl of Fife, afterwards the first Duke of Albany. [36] The reasons for the incident remain unclear but may have involved a dispute regarding Robert's right of succession,[37] or may have been directed against George Dunbar, Earl of March (also known as Earl of Dunbar) and the southern Justiciar, Robert Erskine. [69][70] Robert II's association with Gaelic Scotland also drew criticism. The latter role was given to Fife's son, Murdoch Stewart. [44], Robert II ruled over a country that continued to have English enclaves within its borders and Scots who gave their allegiance to the king of England—the important castles of Berwick, Jedburgh, Lochmaben and Roxburgh had English garrisons and controlled southern Berwickshire, Teviotdale and large areas in Annandale and Tweeddale. Robert *** Stewart 1352-1403 Married in 1388, Argyll, Scotland, toJanet MacDougal 1354-; Katherine (Baroness Maxwell) (Princess of SCOTLAND) STEWART ca 1366-ca 1446 Married 10 August 1386, Scotland, toSir Herbert II Maxwell, Baron Maxwell 1366-1421 with [38] It was resolved by Robert giving his daughter Isabella in marriage to Douglas's son, James and with Douglas replacing Erskine as Justiciar south of the Forth. ), king of Scots from 1371, first of the Stewart (Stuart) sovereigns in Scotland. She first married John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray but the marriage was childless. [40] Robert II was to have influence over eight of the fifteen earldoms either through his sons directly or by strategic marriages of his daughters to powerful lords. Johanna (Jean), married Sir John Keith (died 1375), then John Lyon, Lord of Glamis (died 1383) and finally Sir James Sandilands. He is known as Robert the … He was the first king of the House of Stewart. PM Churchill's 15-Great Grandfather. In his foreword, the series’s editor Norman Macdougall states the book is “the first scholarly study of the early Stewart kings.” He grew up in his ancestral lands in the west and was completely at ease with the Gaelic language and culture and possessed a potent relationship with the Gaelic lords in the Hebrides, upper Perthshire and Argyll. Hostilities continued and Robert was with David at the Neville's Cross on 17 October 1346 and either escaped or fled the field but David was captured and remained a prisoner until he was ransomed in October 1357. Robert Stewart became High Steward of Scotland on his father's death on 9 April 1326, and in the same year parliament confirmed the young Steward as heir should Prince David die without a successor. And they warned him that they would neither ransom him nor allow him to be ransomed unless he pardoned them for all their acts and injuries that they had done, and all the offences that they had committed during the time of captivity, and he should give them security for that, or otherwise they threatened to choose another king to rule them. King Robert II has also many illegitimate children with several mistresses, including four sons with his favorite Mariota Cardeny, daughter of Sir Cardeny, and widow of Alexander Mac Naugthon: Alexander Stewart, of Inverlunan Sir John Stewart, of Cardeny James Stewart, of Abernethy and Kinfauna Walter Stewart Other issue born by unknown women: John Stewart, sheriff of Bute Thomas Stewart, archdeacon of St Andrews Alexander Stewart, canon of Glasgow Maria or Mary Stewart, wife of Sir John de Danielstoun and mother of Sir Robert de Danielstoun of that Ilk (ancestor of Cunningham of Kilmaurs, and Maxwell of Calderwood)[86] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_II_of_Scotland. [27] The king had no option but to return to captivity—the English chronicler Henry Knighton wrote of the event:[28], ... the Scots refused to have their King unless he entirely renounced the influence of the English, and similarly refused to submit themselves to them. [50] In early February the Scots—apparently unaware of the conclusion of an Anglo-French truce on 26 January 1384 that included the Scots in the cease-fire—conducted an all-out attack on the English zones winning back Lochmaben Castle and Teviotdale. He was also known as Robert, High Steward of Scots and by his Gaelic Name, Roibert II Stiùbhairt. Family History Department. [11] Strathbogie came over to the Bruce interest after disagreements with his fellow 'disinherited' but his fierce opposition to Randolph came to a head at a Parliament held at Dairsie Castle in early 1335 when Strathbogie received the support of Robert. The Records of the Parliaments of Scotland to 1707, K.M. [65] Robert's career before and after he succeeded to the throne is described by Donaldson as "to say the least, undistinguished, and his reign did nothing to add lustre to it. When Robert II came to the throne, a fourteen-year truce with England still had twelve years to run, although unofficial warfare with England continued along the border. [59] The skirmishes saw small gains but a quarrel between the French and Scottish commanders saw the abandonment of an attack on the important castle of Roxburgh. New Series, 38 volumes, 1884-1922. Robert II toured the north-east of the kingdom in late January 1390, perhaps to reinforce the changed political scene in the north following Buchan's removal from authority. Robert may have concluded that as the French had reneged on a previous agreement to send assistance in 1383 and then having entered into a truce with England, that any military action would have been met with retaliation and exclusion from the forthcoming Boulogne peace talks. He was one of the leaders of the Scottish army at the battle of Halidon Hill in July 1333; and after gaining some successes over the adherents of Edward Balliol in the west of Scotland, he and John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray (d. 1346), were chosen as regents of the kingdom, while David sought safety in France. About 40% tested positive and about a third added their test results to their surnames as a suffix in order to facilitate subgrouping, etc. [58] The skirmishes saw small gains but a quarrel between the French and Scottish commanders saw the abandonment of an attack on the important castle of Roxburgh. [55] Alexander's activities and methods of royal administration, enforced by Gaelic mercenaries, drew criticism from northern earls and bishops and from his younger half-brother David, Earl of Strathearn. Robert accompanied David into battle at Neville's Cross on 17 October 1346 but he and Patrick Dunbar, Earl of March escaped or fled the field and David was taken prisoner. [84], From this union, ten children reached adulthood:[85], In 1355, Robert married his second wife Euphemia de Ross (died 1387), daughter of Hugh, Earl of Ross. During the English imprisonment of King David II of Scotland, Robert ruled in his place. [73], Grant (1992) acknowledges that Robert II's reign in terms of foreign and domestic policy was "not so unsuccessful". Elizabeth married Thomas de la Hay, Lord High Constable of Scotland. By 1354 ongoing negotiations for the king's release reached the stage where a proposal of a straight ransom payment of 90,000 marks to be repaid over nine years, guaranteed by the provision of 20 high-ranking hostages, was agreed—this understanding was destroyed by Robert when he bound the Scots to a French action against the English in 1355. The marriage was criticized for being uncanonical, so he remarried her in 1349 after receiving a papal dispensation in 1347. [S39] Medieval, royalty, nobility family group sheets (filmed 1996), Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. [47], Dunfermline Abbey which received Coldingham Priory as daughter house from King Robert In his dealings with Edward III, Robert blamed his border magnates for the escalating attacks on the English zones, but regardless of this the Scots retained the recaptured lands, which were often portioned out among minor lords, so securing their interest in preventing English re-possession. [16] The Bruce resistance to Balliol may have been verging on collapse in 1335 but a turn-round in its fortunes began with the appearance of Sir Andrew Murray of Bothwell as a potent war leader at the Battle of Culblean. London: Offices of the Royal Historical Society, 1986), FHL book 942 C4rg no. The tale takes place in the reign of Robert II whose "country enjoyed happiness and peace, all save a part adjoining to the borders of England."